Unless you are an A/B testing and CRO expert, did you realize that most of your A/B test results won’t get a winning result? You may have even experienced this disappointment yourself if you’ve tried A/B testing.
Some good news though. You can actually do something with these inconclusive A/B tests and turn them into better tests with a much greater chance of succeeding – therefore increasing your website sales or leads without needing more traffic.
Instead of simply throwing away losing A/B tests and hoping to get luckier with your next one, you have a fantastic learning opportunity to take advantage of – that most online businesses don’t know about or do well. But what should do first? And what mistakes should watch out for?
To help you ensure you succeed and maximize your learnings, I’ve put together a handy checklist for you. But before I reveal how to maximize your A/B test learnings and future results, let’s set the scene a bit…
First of all, just how many A/B tests fail to get a winning result?
A VWO study found only 1 out 7 A/B tests have winning results. That’s just 14%. Not exactly great, right?
Even a leading agency that helps run many A/B tests found quite disappointing numbers – a study by Experiment Engine revealed only 50% of tests drove a winning result. Even the best CRO agencies only claim a 70-80% success rate, so even they experience many failed test results.
Many online businesses are talking about disappointing A/B testing results too. While they sometimes got very impressive results, Appsumo.com revealed just 1 out of 8 of their tests drove significant change.
This real lack of winning results can often cause frustration and slow progress with A/B testing efforts, and limit further interest and budget in doing CRO. Very frustrating! While A/B testing is only just a part of successful CRO (web analytics, usability and visitor feedback are also essential), you can actually gain real value from failed results, as I will now reveal in the learnings checklist.
The A/B Test Learnings Checklist
1: Did you create a good clear hypothesis for your A/B test?
One of the most common reason causing inconclusive A/B test results is due to the idea behind it being poor – the hypothesis of why the element or page was tested. This is because businesses often just guess at what to test, with no clear strong hypothesis for each test idea. And without a clear hypothesis, you will find it hard to learn if the test fails – you won’t really know what you were trying to achieve or why.
So first check how good your A/B test hypothesis was – in particular, what was the proof the page or element was a problem or opportunity? If you think it was poor or didn’t even have one, you really need to create a better test idea hypothesis – looking at key web analytics reports or getting expert test ideas is a great place to start.
This high importance of a strong A/B test hypothesis is echoed by a leading CRO expert, Joris Byron:
Joris Bryon, CRO Expert at Yorro.co
“The best way to learn from failed tests is to have a clear hypothesis. I see it happening all the time. If you have a clear hypothesis, but your variation doesn’t win, then at least you’ve learned that what you thought was a problem, clearly isn’t. So you can move on to other different things to test. One nuance though: if your variation didn’t win that doesn’t always mean your hypothesis was wrong. If your research shows great support for your hypothesis, look at your variation. Maybe it wasn’t bold enough. Then test again, with the same hypothesis but with a bolder variation.”
2: Did you wait a full 7 days before declaring a result and did you change anything major?
A simple yet common mistake with A/B testing is declaring a losing result too soon. This is particularly problematic if you have a lot of traffic and are keen to find a result quickly. Or worst still, the person doing the test is biased and waits until their least favorite variation starts to lose declares the test a loss.
To avoid this mistake, you need to wait at least a week before declaring a result to allow fluctuations in variation results to level off and to also reduce the impact of differences in traffic by day.
And any time you change anything major on your website while a test is running you also need to wait at least an additional 7 days. This extra time is needed for your testing tool to evaluate the impact of this new change (this is also known as test pollution).
If you find this is the case with your failed test, then I suggest you re-run the test again for a longer period, and try not to change anything major during the period you are running the test.
3: Were the differences between variations bold enough to be easily noticed by visitors?
Next you need to check the variations that were created for the test and see if they were really that different for visitors to notice in the first place. If your variations were subtle, like small changes in images or wording, visitors often won’t notice, or act any different, therefore you often won’t see a winning test result. I’ve seen hundreds of A/B tests created by businesses and you will be surprised at how often this mistake occurs.
If you think this may have occurred with your losing test result, re-rest it but this time make sure you think outside of the box and create at least one bolder variations. Involving other team members can help you brainstorm ideas – marketing experts are helpful here.
4: Did you review click map and visitor recordings for insights about the page tested?
It’s essential to do visual analysis of how visitors interact on every page you want to improve and run an A/B test on. This helps you visually understand what elements are being engaged with the most or least. This visual analysis is particularly important to double check for pages and elements that relate to your failed A/B tests – you can learn a lot from this. Did your visitors even notice the element you were testing?
The first type of visual analysis are visitor clickmaps that show you heatmaps of what your visitors are clicking on, and how far your visitors scroll down your pages. Even more important are visitor session recordings where you can watch visitors exact mouse movements and journey through your website.
So if you hadn’t done this visual analysis for the page relating to the inconclusive test, go ahead and do this now using a tool like Hotjar.com. You may realize that few people are interacting with the element you are testing or that they are getting stuck or confused with something else on the page that you should run an A/B test on instead.
5: Have you performed usability testing on the page being tested, including the new variation?
Usability testing is another essential piece of successful CRO – getting feedback from your target audience is one of the best ways of generating ideas for improvements and A/B test ideas. This should also be performed in advance for your whole website and before any major changes launch.
Therefore, I suggest you run usability testing on the page relating to your losing A/B test result to improve your learnings. In particular, I suggest you use UserTesting.com to ask for feedback on each of the versions and elements you tested. Ask what they liked most or least, and ask what else they think is lacking or could be improved – this really is excellent for creating better follow up test ideas.
I asked Justin Rondeau for his A/B test learning advice – he’s seen a huge amount of A/B test results:
Justin Rondeau, DigitalMarketer.com
First things first is to look at your segments (if you have the traffic) to see if the losing variation had a positive impact on any segment of visitors. Another thing I’ll do is retest that same element but with a different approach. If I see that this test doesn’t move the needle, then the element in question likely isn’t important to the visitor.
Finally, if I don’t have the time to run the ‘exploration’ style test above – I’d dig into some qualitative data. First I’d look at the clickmap of the page, then if the page is important enough run it through an actual eyetracking lab to see if they comprehend what you are trying to improve.”
6: Did you segment your test results by key visitor groups to find potential winners?
A simple way to look for learnings and possibly even uncover a winning test result is to segment your A/B test results for key visitor groups. For example you may find that your new visitors or paid search segment actually generated a winning result which you should push live. Ideally you want to setup segments for each of your key visitor groups and analyze those – you can usually setup A/B testing tool integrations with Google Analytics to make this much easier.
To go one step further, you can actually analyze each of your test variations in Google Analytics to understand differences in user behavior for each test variation and look for more learnings. A web analyst is very helpful for this. You can set up this integration quite easily in major A/B testing tools like Optimizely.
7: How good was the copy used in the test? Was it action or benefit based?
You may have had a great idea for an A/B test, but how good and engaging was the copy used in the test? Did it really captivate your visitors? This is essential to spend time on as headlines and copy can often have some of the biggest impacts on conversion rates. So if you had changed text in your test result that didn’t win, really ask yourself how good the copy was. For better follow-up test wording, always try testing variations that mention benefits, solving common pain points, and use action related wording.
Most people aren’t great at copywriting, so I suggest you get some help with this from someone in your marketing department or get help from a CRO expert.
I asked Claire Vo for her thoughts – she’s seen 1000′s of tests as the founder of ExperimentEngine.com
Claire Vo, Founder of Experiment Engine
It depends how you’re defining a “failed” test. If it is a conversion rate loss, then you’ve identified that the elements changed in the test are “sensitive areas” that contribute quite a bit to your conversions. This is a great clue into what can help conversions – see what in this sensitive area changed in the test. Did you deemphasize something? Change a value proposition? These also offer great hints at what is important to users, and you can use these hints to create future tests that maximize what the original is doing well. If a test is flat, that is again, a clue. Maybe the area you were focused does not matter that much for conversions. If you can pair this against other analytics (heat maps, click funnels, etc.) you can further refine where on a page or site you should focus your conversion efforts. Every test is a learning experience, and each round, win or loss, brings you closer to finding what matters to your users in the conversion funnel.”
8: Did you consider previous steps in the journey – what might need optimizing first?
Another key learning is to understand the whole visitor journey and look at the bigger website experience for your A/B test idea that didn’t win, and not just look for learnings in isolation to the page you were testing.
This is important because if you haven’t optimized your top entry pages first, you will have limited success on pages further down like the funnel like your checkout. So go ahead and find the most common previous page relating to your failed A/B test, and see if anything needs clarifying or improving that relates to the page you are trying to test. For example, if you were testing adding benefits in the checkout, did you test the prominence of these on previous pages?
9: Did you review the test result with a wider audience and brainstorm for ideas?
To increase learnings from your A/B tests, when looking at results you should always get regular feedback and thoughts from key people in related teams like marketing and user experience, at least once per quarter. Creative and design orientated people are ideal for helping improve A/B testing ideas.
And this wider internal feedback is even more important to get when A/B tests don’t get a winning result. So I suggest you setup a meeting to review all your previous losing test results and brainstorm for better ideas – I’m sure you will unearth some real insight gems from this wider team. Then to ensure this review happens in the future too, setup a regular quarterly A/B test results review meeting with these key people.
10: Could you move or increase the size of the tested element so its more prominent?
Another common reason for an inconclusive test A/B test result is because the element being tested is not in a very prominent position and often doesn’t get noticed by visitors. This is particularly true for testing elements that are in side bars or are very low down on pages because these often don’t get seen as much.
Therefore, to try and turn an A/B test with no result into a winning test, consider moving the element being tested to a more prominent location on the page (or another page that gets more traffic) and then re-run the test. This works particularly well with key elements like call-to-action buttons, benefits, risk reducers and key navigation links.
This last step of iterating and retesting the same page or element is essential, as it helps you determine whether it will ever have a good impact on your conversion rates. If you still don’t get a good follow up test result that means you should instead move onto test ideas for another page or element that will hopefully be a better conversion influencer.
As you have hopefully realized now, losing A/B test results happen much more often than you might have thought. So go ahead and revisit all your losing test results, review these steps and try to create some better test ideas. Which will you try first?